Environments of Change

Discoverability
Visible
Join Policy
Restricted
Created
01 Oct 2021

"Environments of Change Research Portal" 49 posts Sort by created date Sort by defined ordering View as a grid View as a list

Dumas, Santé publique et gestion des effluents urbains à Montpellier à la fin du Moyen Âge

DUMAS, Geneviève. « Santé publique et gestion des effluents urbains à Montpellier à la fin du Moyen Âge ». Bulletin historique de la ville de Montpellier, no42, 2020, p. 82-99

0 comments 0 reposts

Dumas, Responsabilité et reddition des comptes à Montpellier au XVe siècle

DUMAS, Geneviève. « Responsabilité et reddition des comptes à Montpellier au XVe siècle ». Actes du colloque : L'histoire des villes à travers leur comptabilité (Montpellier, 14-15 juin, 2017), ComptabilitéS, [En ligne], 12, 2019

L’article examinera d’abord la notion d’« imputabilité » avec pour objectif de comprendre les horizons d’attentes de l’universitas montpelliéraine en ce qui a trait aux dépenses publiques. On verra ensuite comment le contexte de production, la mécanique des comptes et les processus comptables sont inhérents à la notion de responsabilité financière. On conclura en montrant que la gestion des finances publiques est une importante manifestation de l’autonomie urbaine.

0 comments 0 reposts

Dumas and Dubé, Muddy Waters in Medieval Montpellier

DUMAS, Geneviève, DUBÉ, Catherine. « Muddy Waters in Medieval Montpellier ». Dans Carole Rawcliffe et Claire Weeda, dir., Policing the Environment in the Middle Ages and Early Modern Times, Amsterdam, Presses universitaires d’Amsterdam, 2019, p. 179-206.

0 comments 0 reposts

Dumas, Montpellier face aux mortalités : discours, prise en charge et matérialité des victimes

DUMAS, Geneviève. « Montpellier face aux mortalités : discours, prise en charge et matérialité des victimes ». Dans Thomas Labbé et Gerrit Jasper Schenk, dir., Actes du colloque "Pour une histoire de la sensibilité. Perception et prise en charge des victimes de catastrophes", (Lorsch, 11-13 décembre 2014), Turnhout, Brepols, 2018, p. 103-123.

Cet ouvrage se propose de réfléchir à la construction historique de la condition de victime, en relation avec les événements traumatiques dans l'Europe médiévale et moderne. Dans le contexte contemporain, le discours et la gestion des situations de catastrophe ou de mort de masse s'organisent en priorité autour de la place des victimes dans la fabrique événementielle. Cette attitude de la société contemporaine face à la dévastation, qualifiée tantôt de « compassionnelle », tantôt « d'humanitaire », ou bien encore de « tragique », reflète une forme de sensibilité qui définit en premier lieu la réalité catastrophique comme un drame.

Une telle approche de la souffrance possède-t-elle cependant une histoire ou constitue-t-elle une constante anthropologique de la société occidentale ? Quel regard les sociétés médiévales et modernes ont-elles posé sur cet aspect autant éthique que social du réel ? Les essais réunis dans ce volume proposent d'offrir quelques pistes de réflexion. À la lecture ambiguë de la victime au Moyen Âge, entre souffrance et responsabilité, la Renaissance semble commencer à proposer une vision plus « tragique » des individus souffrants. Les victimes peuvent dès lors entrer progressivement dans une politique des émotions qui triomphe au XVIIIe siècle.

0 comments 0 reposts

Dumas, Bien public et pratiques de la santé à Montpellier au XVe siècle

DUMAS, Geneviève. « Bien public et pratiques de la santé à Montpellier au XVe siècle ». Dans Lucie Galano et Lucie Laumonier, dir., Montpellier au Moyen Âge, Bilan et approches nouvelles, Turnhout, Brepols, 2017, p. 77-89.

Fondée à la fin du Xe siècle, Montpellier connut une expansion fulgurante à partir du XIIe, à la faveur du développement d’échanges culturels et économiques, vers la Méditerranée ou le nord de l’Europe. Cette expansion était le fruit de politiques menées par les Guilhem et confirmée lors du passage de la seigneurie sous l’autorité des rois d’Aragon et de Majorque après 1204, quand la ville obtint un gouvernement consulaire. Devenue une communauté urbaine d’importance au XIIIe siècle, Montpellier était habitée par une population cosmopolite. Dans et hors les murs se croisaient grands marchands, changeurs et simples revendeurs, universitaires et intellectuels de renom, artisans et agriculteurs. L’attractivité et le rayonnement de Montpellier en faisaient l’une des principales villes du Bas-Languedoc. Pourtant, son histoire médiévale n’a bénéficié que d’une attention inégale de la part des chercheurs. Cet ouvrage, procède d’un colloque international  réuni à Montpellier en 2013 et rassemble des articles réalisés par les principaux contributeurs et principales contributrices à l’histoire et à l’archéologie de la ville. Basés sur des archives originales ou sur la réinterprétation de données connues, les recherches proposées ici, tout en présentant un bilan des travaux passés, empruntent des voies nouvelles démontrant les promesses des études historiques et archéologiques sur Montpellier.

0 comments 0 reposts

Dumas, L’enseignement au Moyen Âge

DUMAS, Geneviève. « L’enseignement au Moyen Âge ». Dans Christian Amalvi et Rémy Pech, dir, Histoire de Montpellier, Toulouse, Privat, 2015, p. 109-129.

Ces vers des Fleurs du mal de Baudelaire en 1857 s'appliquent pleinement à Montpellier, qui, dans les dernières décennies, a profondément changé. Il était nécessaire de rendre compte non seulement de la métamorphose de la capitale du Languedoc administrée par Georges Frêche, mais aussi des apports considérables à la connaissance du Montpellier médiéval, moderne et contemporain résultant des fouilles des chantiers du tram et des derniers travaux savants.

0 comments 0 reposts

Dumas, Santé et société à Montpellier XIIIe-XVe siècles

DUMAS, Geneviève. Santé et société à Montpellier XIIIe-XVe siècles, Leyde, Brill, 2015.


This book examines the social, institutional and cultural setting of medical practices in the medieval town of Montpellier which boasted one of the first universities of the middle ages and a famous school of medicine. Some of its most celebrated masters and their medical works have been thoroughly studied but few of them try to put these in context with a thriving urban community of merchants and craftsmen that were at the core of the city council. Their concurrent efforts will endow Montpellier of a rich health care system featuring not only the university masters but also the city’s barber-surgeons and apothecaries. Their collective fate is revealed here in an integrated picture of health and society in the middle ages.

0 comments 0 reposts

Dumas, Le livre de mémoires des notaires Bertrand Paul (1397-1400) et Jean du Pin (1401-1419) : gestion documentaire et mémoire urbaine

DUMAS, Geneviève. « Le livre de mémoires des notaires Bertrand Paul (1397-1400) et Jean du Pin (1401-1419) : gestion documentaire et mémoire urbaine ». Dans Patrick Gilli et Enrica Salvatore, dir., Les identités urbaines au Moyen Âge, (Studies in European Urban History, no32), Turnhout, Brepols, 2014, p. 81-92.

0 comments 0 reposts

Dumas, Un registre de comptes à Montpellier au XVe siècle : nouveau regard sur l’organisation communale médiévale

DUMAS, Geneviève. « Un registre de comptes à Montpellier au XVe siècle : nouveau regard sur l’organisation communale médiévale ». Bulletin historique de la ville de Montpellier, no35, 2013, p. 48-61.

0 comments 0 reposts

Dubé, L’apport des sources comptables à l’étude du réseau viaire de Montpellier à la fin du Moyen Âge

DUBÉ, Catherine. « L’apport des sources comptables à l’étude du réseau viaire de Montpellier à la fin du Moyen Âge ». ComptabilitéS [En ligne], no12, 2019. 

Abstract 

À la fin du Moyen Âge, l’administration urbaine de Montpellier développe des préoccupations de plus en plus importantes pour la voirie, qui se concrétisent par une série d’interventions sur le réseau de communication urbain. Celles-ci se déclinent en travaux de nettoyage et d’entretien sanitaire des voies supervisés par des officiers de la ville, en entreprises de pavage réalisées par des ouvriers spécialisés, les « caladiers » mais aussi par des gestes d’embellissement, contribuant à améliorer l’expérience esthétique de la ville et contribuer à son prestige. Ces diverses interventions sont documentées dans la comptabilité urbaine, qui se révèle être une source de premier plan pour l’étude de la gestion du réseau viaire

 

0 comments 0 reposts

Slavin, Black death: how we solved the centuries-old mystery of its origins

Slavin, P. (2022, June 20). Black death: how we solved the centuries-old mystery of its origins. The Conversation. https://theconversation.com/black-death-how-we-solved-the-centuries-old-mystery-of-its-origins-185423

0 comments 0 reposts

Newfield, Duggan, and Poinar, RE: Diverse variola virus (smallpox) strains were widespread in northern Europe in the Viking Age

Newfield, T., Duggan, A.T., Poinar, H. (2020). RE: Diverse variola virus (smallpox) strains were widespread in northern Europe in the Viking Age. Science 369, eLetter: https://science.sciencemag.org/content/369/6502/eaaw8977/tab-e-letters

0 comments 0 reposts

Newfield and Oppenheimer, Comment on "Effects in North Africa of the 934-940 CE Eldgjá and 1783-1784 CE Laki eruptions (Iceland) revealed by previously unrecognized written sources" Brugnatelli, V., and Tibaldi, A.

Newfield, T., & Oppenheimer, C. (2021). Comment on "Effects in North Africa of the 934-940 CE Eldgjá and 1783-1784 CE Laki eruptions (Iceland) revealed by previously unrecognized written sources" by Brugnatelli, V., and Tibaldi, A. [Bull. Volcanol. (2020) 82:73] Bulletin of Volcanology 83, 55. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00445-021-01478-9

0 comments 0 reposts

Izdebski, A., et al., Palaeoecological Data Indicates Land-Use Changes Across Europe Linked to Spatial Heterogeneity in Mortality During the Black Death Pandemic

Izdebski, A., Guzowski, P., Poniat, R., Masci, L., Palli, J., Vignola, C., Bauch, M., Cocozza, C., Fernandes, R., Ljungqvist, F.C., Newfield, T., Seim, A., Abel-Schaad, D., Alba-Sánchez, F., Björkman, L., Brauer, A., Brown, A., Czerwiński, S., Ejarque, A., . . . Masi, A. (2022). Palaeoecological Data Indicates Land-Use Changes Across Europe Linked to Spatial Heterogeneity in Mortality During the Black Death Pandemic. Nature Ecology & Evolution 6, 297-306.

Abstract

"The Black Death (1347–1352 ce ) is the most renowned pandemic in human history, believed by many to have killed half of Europe’s population. However, despite advances in ancient DNA research that conclusively identified the pandemic’s causative agent (bacterium Yersinia pestis), our knowledge of the Black Death remains limited, based primarily on qualitative remarks in medieval written sources available for some areas of Western Europe. Here, we remedy this situation by applying a pioneering new approach, ‘big data palaeoecology’, which, starting from palynological data, evaluates the scale of the Black Death’s mortality on a regional scale across Europe. We collected pollen data on landscape change from 261 radiocarbon-dated coring sites (lakes and wetlands) located across 19 modern-day European countries. We used two independent methods of analysis to evaluate whether the changes we see in the landscape at the time of the Black Death agree with the hypothesis that a large portion of the population, upwards of half, died within a few years in the 21 historical regions we studied. While we can confirm that the Black Death had a devastating impact in some regions, we found that it had negligible or no impact in others. These inter-regional differences in the Black Death’s mortality across Europe demonstrate the significance of cultural, ecological, economic, societal and climatic factors that mediated the dissemination and impact of the disease. The complex interplay of these factors, along with the historical ecology of plague, should be a focus of future research on historical pandemics."

0 comments 0 reposts

Mordechai, Eisenberg, Newfield, Izdebski, Kay, and Poinar, The Justinianic Plague: An Inconsequential Pandemic?

Mordechai, L., Eisenberg, M., Newfield, T.P., Izdebski, A., Kay, J.E., & Poinar, H. (2019). The Justinianic Plague: An Inconsequential Pandemic? PNAS 116, 25546-25554. https://doi.org/10.1525/jmw.2020.2.3-4.115

Abstract

"Existing mortality estimates assert that the Justinianic Plague (circa 541 to 750 CE) caused tens of millions of deaths throughout the Mediterranean world and Europe, helping to end antiquity and start the Middle Ages. In this article, we argue that this paradigm does not fit the evidence. We examine a series of independent quantitative and qualitative datasets that are directly or indirectly linked to demographic and economic trends during this two-century period: Written sources, legislation, coinage, papyri, inscriptions, pollen, ancient DNA, and mortuary archaeology. Individually or together, they fail to support the maximalist paradigm: None has a clear independent link to plague outbreaks and none supports maximalist reconstructions of late antique plague. Instead of large-scale, disruptive mortality, when contextualized and examined together, the datasets suggest continuity across the plague period. Although demographic, economic, and political changes continued between the 6th and 8th centuries, the evidence does not support the now commonplace claim that the Justinianic Plague was a primary causal factor of them."

0 comments 0 reposts

Luterbacher, Newfield, Xoplaki, Nowatzki, Luther, Zhang, and Khelifi, Past Pandemics and Climate Variability Across the Mediterranean

Luterbacher, J., Newfield, T.P., Xoplaki, E., Nowatzki, E., Luther, N., Zhang, M., & Khelifi, N. (2020). Past Pandemics and Climate Variability Across the Mediterranean. Euro-Mediterranean Journal for Environmental Integration 5, 46. https://doi.org/10.1007/s41207-020-00197-5

Abstract

"The influence that meteorological, climatological and environmental factors had on historical disease outbreaks is often speculated upon, but little investigated. Here, we explore potential associations between pandemic disease and climate over the last 2,500 years in Mediterranean history, focusing on ancient disease outbreaks and the Justinianic plague in particular. We underscore variation in the quality, quantity and interpretation of written evidence and proxy information from natural archives, the complexity of identifying and disentangling past climatological and environmental drivers, and the need to integrate diverse methodologies to discern past climate-disease linkages and leverage historical experiences to prepare for the rapid expansion of novel pathogenic diseases. Although the difficulties entailed in establishing historical climate-pandemic linkages persist to the present, this is a research area as urgent as it is complex and historical perspectives are desperately needed."

0 comments 0 reposts

Mordechai, Eisenberg, Newfield, Izdebski, and Kay, Doing History: Plague Past and Future - A Second Response to Mischa Meier

Mordechai, L., Eisenberg, M., Newfield, T., Izdebski, A., & Kay, J. (2020) Doing History: Plague Past and Future - A Second Response to Mischa Meier. Medizinhistorisches Journal 55(3), 297-298. https://doi.org/10.25162/mhj-2020-0013

0 comments 0 reposts

Mackay, et al., The 852/3 CE Mount Churchill Eruption: Examining the Potential Climatic and Societal Impacts and the Timing of the Medieval Climate Anomaly in the North Atlantic Region

Mackay, H., Plunkett, G., Jensen, B. J. L., Aubry, T. J., Corona, C., Kim, W. M., Toohey, M., Sigl, M., Stoffel, M., Anchukaitis, K. J., Raible, C., Bolton, M. S. M., Manning, J. G., Newfield, T. P., Di Cosmo, N., Ludlow, F., Kostick, C., Yang, Z., Coyle McClung, L., Amesbury, M., Monteath, A., Hughes, P. D. M., Langdon, P. G., Charman, D., Booth, R., Davies, K. L., Blundell, A., & Swindles, G. T. (2022). The 852/3 CE Mount Churchill Eruption: Examining the Potential Climatic and Societal Impacts and the Timing of the Medieval Climate Anomaly in the North Atlantic Region. Climate of the Past, 18(6), 1475–1508. https://doi.org/10.5194/cp-18-1475-2022

Abstract

"The 852/3 CE eruption of Mount Churchill, Alaska, was one of the largest first-millennium volcanic events, with a magnitude of 6.7 (VEI 6) and a tephra volume of 39.4–61.9 km3 (95 % confidence). The spatial extent of the ash fallout from this event is considerable and the cryptotephra (White River Ash east; WRAe) extends as far as Finland and Poland. Proximal ecosystem and societal disturbances have been linked with this eruption; however, wider eruption impacts on climate and society are unknown. Greenland ice core records show that the eruption occurred in winter 852/3 ± 1 CE and that the eruption is associated with a relatively moderate sulfate aerosol loading but large abundances of volcanic ash and chlorine. Here we assess the potential broader impact of this eruption using palaeoenvironmental reconstructions, historical records and climate model simulations. We also use the fortuitous timing of the 852/3 CE Churchill eruption and its extensively widespread tephra deposition of the White River Ash (east) (WRAe) to examine the climatic expression of the warm Medieval Climate Anomaly period (MCA; ca. 950–1250 CE) from precisely linked peatlands in the North Atlantic region.

The reconstructed climate forcing potential of the 852/3 CE Churchill eruption is moderate compared with the eruption magnitude, but tree-ring-inferred temperatures report a significant atmospheric cooling of 0.8 C in summer 853 CE. Modelled climate scenarios also show a cooling in 853 CE, although the average magnitude of cooling is smaller (0.3 C). The simulated spatial patterns of cooling are generally similar to those generated using the tree-ring-inferred temperature reconstructions. Tree-ring-inferred cooling begins prior to the date of the eruption suggesting that natural internal climate variability may have increased the climate system's susceptibility to further cooling. The magnitude of the reconstructed cooling could also suggest that the climate forcing potential of this eruption may be underestimated, thereby highlighting the need for greater insight into, and consideration of, the role of halogens and volcanic ash when estimating eruption climate forcing potential.

Precise comparisons of palaeoenvironmental records from peatlands across North America and Europe, facilitated by the presence of the WRAe isochron, reveal no consistent MCA signal. These findings contribute to the growing body of evidence that characterises the MCA hydroclimate as time-transgressive and heterogeneous rather than a well-defined climatic period. The presence of the WRAe isochron also demonstrates that no long-term (multidecadal) climatic or societal impacts from the 852/3 CE Churchill eruption were identified beyond areas proximal to the eruption. Historical evidence in Europe for subsistence crises demonstrate a degree of temporal correspondence on interannual timescales, but similar events were reported outside of the eruption period and were common in the 9th century. The 852/3 CE Churchill eruption exemplifies the difficulties of identifying and confirming volcanic impacts for a single eruption, even when the eruption has a small age uncertainty."

0 comments 0 reposts

D'Arrigo, Klinger, Newfield, Rydval, and Wilson, Complexity in crisis: The Volcanic Cold Pulse of the 1690s and the Consequences of Scotland's Failure to Cope

D'Arrigo, R., Klinger, P., Newfield, T., Rydvalde, M., & Wilson, Rob. (2020). Complexity in crisis: The Volcanic Cold Pulse of the 1690s and the Consequences of Scotland's Failure to Cope. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 389. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2019.106746

Abstract

"Recent work has linked historical crises, both regional and local, with palaeoclimatic estimates of global and hemispheric climate change. Such studies tend to underemphasize the spatiotemporal and socioeconomical disparity of human suffering and adaptive capacity as well as the complexities of past climate change. We focus herein on the effects in Scotland of a severely cold climate episode in the 1690s, associated with major tropical volcanic events including a large unidentified tropical eruption in 1695. A tree-ring based summer temperature reconstruction from the northern Cairngorms region identifies the 1690s as the coldest decade in Scotland for the last 750 years. Archival sources meanwhile reveal the 1690s as likely the worst era of crop failure, food shortage, and mortality ever documented in Scottish history. The connection appears simple - volcanic cooling triggered famine - but the drivers towards famine are far more complex. Although the unusual coldness of the 1690s was near-hemispheric in scale, it had a differential impact across north-western Europe. Within Scotland, both lowlands and highlands experienced dire conditions, but distinct factors exacerbated the suffering in each region. We integrate historical and palaeoclimatic records to explore the influence of the volcanic cold pulse of the 1690s and its consequences in Scotland. We find that while cooling temperatures characterized the regional to larger-scale climate, vulnerability and response potential were diverse and shaped by local circumstances. The Scottish crisis of the 1690s, in the context of the kingdom's failing economy, influenced investors from all parts of society, including the nobility and entire communities, to fund the ill-fated expedition to colonize Darien in modern-day Panama. The climate crisis and the colony's collapse hindered Scotland's already sluggish economy, motivating unification with England soon after."

0 comments 0 reposts

Mordechai, Eisenberg, Newfield, Izdebski, Kay, Quantitative Analysis and Plagued Assumptions: A Response to Mischa Meier

Mordechai, L., Eisenberg, M., Newfield, T., Izdebski, A., Kay, J. (2020). Quantitative Analysis and Plagued Assumptions: A Response to Mischa Meier. Medizinhistorisches Journal 55(3), 290-293. https://doi.org/10.25162/mhj-2020-0011

0 comments 0 reposts